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Iron Curtain speech  

Winston Churchill

Throughout the 1930s, Churchill had opposed the policy of “appeasement” advocated by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and his allies in the British Parliament. His rise to the highest ... More

NSC 68  

Paul H. Nitze

This Report from the National Security Council to President Harry S. Truman laid out the framework for the policy of “containment” that guided US actions throughout the Cold War. Its main ... More

On Nuclear Defense  

Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev

The 1980s was the final decade of the Cold War. Whereas the period between 1942 and 1962 marked the most hostile stage and 1962 to 1979 was the era of détente, the final stage saw the ... More

Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World  

Mikhail Gorbachev

Two years after becoming first secretary of the Soviet Politburo in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931) launched his two trademark economic and political programs, perestroika ... More

“Telegram to Moscow”  

Nikolai Novikov

The Soviet view of the Cold War world is reflected in Ambassador Nikolai Novikov’s extended 1946 analysis of the postwar global situation and of U.S. policies and goals. Novikov’s ... More

“The Sources of Soviet Conduct”  

George F. Kennan

George Kennan (1904–2005) was one of the most distinguished American diplomats of the twentieth century, and his article “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947) is one of the most ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations General Assembly

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the Second World War. ... More