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Address to a Meeting in New York  

Malcolm X

The Black Muslims (or the Nation of Islam) were founded by an orthodox Muslim immigrant to America, Wallace Fard Muhammad, in 1931, and made into a powerful movement by Elijah Muhammad. ... More

“I Have a Dream”  

Martin Luther King Jr.

Under the accelerating pressure of the American civil rights movement—and with images of African Americans being attacked and beaten as they demanded equality beaming across television ... More

Letters on the Cuban Missile Crisis between Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev  

Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 marked the climax, and the most dangerous point, of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. When US spy planes discovered the ... More

On Nuclear Defense  

Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev

The 1980s was the final decade of the Cold War. Whereas the period between 1942 and 1962 marked the most hostile stage and 1962 to 1979 was the era of détente, the final stage saw the ... More

Remarks at the Completion of the Fourth Mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia  

Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan (1911–2004) was the fortieth president of the United States, serving from 1981 to 1989. Although he had been born in Illinois, he moved to California when he was twenty-six. ... More

“Telegram to Moscow”  

Nikolai Novikov

The Soviet view of the Cold War world is reflected in Ambassador Nikolai Novikov’s extended 1946 analysis of the postwar global situation and of U.S. policies and goals. Novikov’s ... More

“The Sources of Soviet Conduct”  

George F. Kennan

George Kennan (1904–2005) was one of the most distinguished American diplomats of the twentieth century, and his article “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947) is one of the most ... More

The Truman Doctrine  

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman’s presidency coincided with the early and uncertain days of the Cold War. During his administration (1945–1952), Soviet victories in World War II had placed the Red Army in ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations Drafting Committee

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the World War II. The ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations General Assembly

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the Second World War. ... More

“Why Americans Fight in Vietnam”  

Lyndon B. Johnson

The American leader most associated with American involvement in Vietnam was President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973). In his speech “Why Americans Fight in Vietnam” (1965), he attempted to ... More

“Why I Oppose the Vietnam War”  

John Kerry

The Vietnam War and the cost it imposed on the young Americans who served there (not to mention on the Vietnamese themselves) was the focus of John Kerry’s testimony before the U.S. Senate, ... More

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