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The Arab Refugee Problem  

Abba Ebhan

Abba Eban (1915–2002) was an Israeli diplomat who served as Minister of Education and Culture (1960–1963), Deputy Prime Minister (1963–1966), and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1966–1974). ... More

Coverage of the Tiananmen Square Protests  

British Broadcasting Corporation

In May 1989, a protest movement gathered strength in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, as students convened and constructed a large statue called the Goddess of Democracy. By the beginning of ... More

Iron Curtain speech  

Winston Churchill

Throughout the 1930s, Churchill had opposed the policy of “appeasement” advocated by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and his allies in the British Parliament. His rise to the highest ... More

“Iron Curtain” speech  

Winston Churchill

Churchill’s speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, delivered when Churchill was no longer Prime Minister, introduced the phrase “Iron Curtain” to describe the division of Europe ... More

Letters on the Cuban Missile Crisis between Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev  

Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 marked the climax, and the most dangerous point, of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. When US spy planes discovered the ... More

“Message to the Pilgrims”  

Ruhollah Khomeini

Ruhollah Khomeini Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (1900–1989) was a leader-in-exile of the revolution that overthrew the Shah of Iran (1919–1980) in 1979, but his ... More

NSC 68  

Paul H. Nitze

This Report from the National Security Council to President Harry S. Truman laid out the framework for the policy of “containment” that guided US actions throughout the Cold War. Its main ... More

On Nuclear Defense  

Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev

The 1980s was the final decade of the Cold War. Whereas the period between 1942 and 1962 marked the most hostile stage and 1962 to 1979 was the era of détente, the final stage saw the ... More

On Post-War American Policy  

Nikolai Novikov

Just as the United States distrusted the Soviet Union, so the Soviet Union distrusted the United States, believing it to be inherently imperialist and bent on Soviet destruction. Intended ... More

Resignation Speech  

Gamal Abdel Nasser

On June 9th, 1967, President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt resigned his office, after the failure of the Egyptian-led Six Day War against Israel. Nasser had held the presidency since 1956. He ... More

“Telegram to Moscow”  

Nikolai Novikov

The Soviet view of the Cold War world is reflected in Ambassador Nikolai Novikov’s extended 1946 analysis of the postwar global situation and of U.S. policies and goals. Novikov’s ... More

“The People’s War”  

Vo Nguyen Giap

Although Ho Chi Minh was the main political leader of the Vietminh, the dominant military figure was Vo Nguyen Giap (1912–2013). Like Ho, Giap was a long-time revolutionary and nationalist. ... More

“The Sources of Soviet Conduct”  

George F. Kennan

George Kennan (1904–2005) was one of the most distinguished American diplomats of the twentieth century, and his article “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947) is one of the most ... More

The Truman Doctrine  

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman’s presidency coincided with the early and uncertain days of the Cold War. During his administration (1945–1952), Soviet victories in World War II had placed the Red Army in ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations Drafting Committee

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the World War II. The ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations General Assembly

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the Second World War. ... More

The Vietnamese Declaration of Independence  

Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc)

In September 1945, the same month that World War II officially ended, Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969) declared both Vietnamese independence and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of ... More

“Why Americans Fight in Vietnam”  

Lyndon B. Johnson

The American leader most associated with American involvement in Vietnam was President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973). In his speech “Why Americans Fight in Vietnam” (1965), he attempted to ... More

“Why I Oppose the Vietnam War”  

John Kerry

The Vietnam War and the cost it imposed on the young Americans who served there (not to mention on the Vietnamese themselves) was the focus of John Kerry’s testimony before the U.S. Senate, ... More