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The Arab Refugee Problem  

Abba Ebhan

Abba Eban (1915–2002) was an Israeli diplomat who served as Minister of Education and Culture (1960–1963), Deputy Prime Minister (1963–1966), and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1966–1974). ... More

Black Homeland Consolidation Proposals for South Africa  


Abstract and Key Words In 1950 the government of South Africa passed apartheid legislation known as the Group Areas Act No. 41, which required South Africans ... More

Coverage of the Tiananmen Square Protests  

British Broadcasting Corporation

In May 1989, a protest movement gathered strength in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, as students convened and constructed a large statue called the Goddess of Democracy. By the beginning of ... More

“I Have a Dream”  

Martin Luther King Jr.

Under the accelerating pressure of the American civil rights movement—and with images of African Americans being attacked and beaten as they demanded equality beaming across television ... More

Iron Curtain speech  

Winston Churchill

Throughout the 1930s, Churchill had opposed the policy of “appeasement” advocated by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and his allies in the British Parliament. His rise to the highest ... More

“Iron Curtain” speech  

Winston Churchill

Churchill’s speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, delivered when Churchill was no longer Prime Minister, introduced the phrase “Iron Curtain” to describe the division of Europe ... More

“Last Words to the Nation”  

Salvador Allende

Salvador Allende led a coalition of socialists, communists, and liberal Christian Democrats to a plurality win as president of Chile in 1970. Many of his policies met opposition within ... More

Map of Ghana  

Ghana Census Office

Abstract and Keywords The kingdom of Ghana was originally an ancient and medieval Sudanese kingdom on the Guinea Coast with no fixed political boundaries and ... More

NSC 68  

Paul H. Nitze

This Report from the National Security Council to President Harry S. Truman laid out the framework for the policy of “containment” that guided US actions throughout the Cold War. Its main ... More

On Post-War American Policy  

Nikolai Novikov

Just as the United States distrusted the Soviet Union, so the Soviet Union distrusted the United States, believing it to be inherently imperialist and bent on Soviet destruction. Intended ... More

Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World  

Mikhail Gorbachev

Two years after becoming first secretary of the Soviet Politburo in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931) launched his two trademark economic and political programs, perestroika ... More

Resignation Speech  

Gamal Abdel Nasser

On June 9th, 1967, President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt resigned his office, after the failure of the Egyptian-led Six Day War against Israel. Nasser had held the presidency since 1956. He ... More

Socialism and Rural Development  

Julius Nyerere

The colonial history of Tanzania (then known as Tanganyika) bears many similarities to the experiences of other African colonies. The primary intention of both the German and British ... More

“Telegram to Moscow”  

Nikolai Novikov

The Soviet view of the Cold War world is reflected in Ambassador Nikolai Novikov’s extended 1946 analysis of the postwar global situation and of U.S. policies and goals. Novikov’s ... More

The Vietnamese Declaration of Independence  

Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc)

In September 1945, the same month that World War II officially ended, Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969) declared both Vietnamese independence and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of ... More