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“Black Consciousness and the Quest for a True Humanity”  

Steve Biko

Born in 1946 in South Africa, in the Eastern Cape, Steve Biko engaged in political activism at a very early age, which ultimately caused his permanent expulsion from public schooling. ... More

An Ethiopian View of the Battle of Adowa  


Evidence that imperial expansion in the nineteenth century was not an exclusive European privilege is provided by this painting of the Battle of Adowa in 1896. Under the command of the ... More

Five-Year Plan Poster, Ghana  


While many consider the Cold War to have been a showdown between free market capitalism and state-directed economics, the truth on the ground was often more complex. Here, the American ... More


Ayatollah Khomeni

Sayyed Ruhollah Mostafavi Mosavi Khomeini, or Ayatollah Khomeini (1902–1989), was the leader of the Iranian revolution of 1979. After the downfall of the ruling Shah (King), Khomeini, who ... More

“Message to the Pilgrims”  

Ruhollah Khomeini

Ruhollah Khomeini Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (1900–1989) was a leader-in-exile of the revolution that overthrew the Shah of Iran (1919–1980) in 1979, but his ... More

“Rivers of Blood” speech  

Enoch Powell

Enoch Powell was a member of parliament in Britain’s Conservative Party in the 1960s. He gave his “Rivers of Blood” speech in the spring of 1968 at the general meeting of the West Midlands ... More

“The Path Which Led Me to Leninism”  

Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc)

On September 2, 1945, the day of Japan’s surrender to the United States, the leader of the communist resistance in Indochina, Ho Chi Minh, read a Vietnamese declaration of independence to ... More

“The Sources of Soviet Conduct”  

George F. Kennan

George Kennan (1904–2005) was one of the most distinguished American diplomats of the twentieth century, and his article “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947) is one of the most ... More

The Truman Doctrine  

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman’s presidency coincided with the early and uncertain days of the Cold War. During his administration (1945–1952), Soviet victories in World War II had placed the Red Army in ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations General Assembly

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the Second World War. ... More