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Casta Paintings, Mexico  

Anonymous

Some of the most remarkable visual records of colonial Mexico are the series of paintings called “caste” paintings, illustrating every racial combination of Spanish, mestizo, black, Native ... More

The Conquest of New Spain  

Bernal Díaz

In the course of the fifteenth century, the Aztecs conquered an empire centered in the Valley of Mexico (present-day Mexico City, after the drainage of most of the valley) but encompassing ... More

“Criticisn of Imperialism,” Imperialism  

John A. Hobson

John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) grew up during an economic depression in England that ultimately shifted his intellectual interests from literature to economics. One of his major ... More

Letters on the Cuban Missile Crisis between Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev  

Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 marked the climax, and the most dangerous point, of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. When US spy planes discovered the ... More

Marina de San Miguel’s Confessions before the Inquisition, Mexico City  

Anonymous

The Inquisition was well established in Spain at the time of Cortés’s conquest in the 1520s. A tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition came in the conquistadors’ wake, ultimately ... More

Mayan Vase  

Anonymous

Abstract and Key Words As in all societies where lineage serves political purposes, the Maya kept dynastic lists in varied forms, including architectural ... More

Memoirs of General Antonio López de Santa Anna  

Antonio López de Santa Anna

Santa Anna (1794–1876) is recognized today by Americans, and especially by Texans, primarily for his successful siege of the Alamo in March 1836. However, he also epitomized the caudillo ... More

Nahuatl Land Sale Documents, Mexico  

Anonymous

After the conquest of the Aztec imperial capital of Tenochtitlan, Spaniards turned their attention to the productive farmland in the surrounding countryside, which was inhabited by ... More

Second Letter from Mexico to Emperor Charles V  

Hernán Cortés

With a handful of untrained and poorly equipped soldiers, Hernán Cortés overthrew the powerful Aztec civilization between 1519 and 1520. Born in Spain around 1485, Cortés decided to inform ... More

A Short Account  

Bartolomé de las Casas

A Dominican friar, Bartolomé de las Casas (ca. 1484–1566) wrote his Short Account to open the eyes of King Philip II of Spain as to the atrocities committed in newly discovered Latin ... More

Speeches and Letters on the Haitian Revolution  

Toussaint L’Ouverture

Toussaint L’Ouverture was the founder of the second independent nation in the New World and the leader of the most successful slave revolt in Western history. He was born on a plantation in ... More

Taino Ceremonial Wooden Stool  

Anonymous

Abstract and Key Words At the time of European contact in the late 15th century, the Taino were one of the major indigenous peoples of the Caribbean. They ... More

Techialoyan land record  

Anonymous

Abstract and Key Words As part of the annihilation of the Aztec civilization after Cortés conquered Montezuma's empire, the Spaniards burned the Aztec ... More

The Temple of the Jaguars, Chichén Itzá  

Anonymous

Chichén Itzá was founded during a period of renewed urbanization in the Mayan states around 650, and a remarkable state flourished in its vicinity between 850 and 1000. The population was ... More

“The Jamaican Letter”  

Simón Bolívar

Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) is known as “the Liberator” of South America from Spanish colonial rule. “The Jamaican Letter” (1815) is one of his earliest and most important political essays on ... More

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