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“A Jewish Palestine”  

Henry Sacher

In this excerpt from an article in The Atlantic Monthly (July 1919), the British Zionist Harry Sacher (1882–1971) explains to an American audience why the issue of a Jewish homeland is such ... More

ANZAC troops at Gallipoli in August 1915  

C.E.W. Bean

In the aftermath of the Great War, the Allied nations compiled both regimental and general histories of the conflict. In these narratives, the experiences of the soldiers and their ... More

The Decline of the West  

Oswald Spengler

Oswald Spengler (1880–1936), may not have been the obvious candidate to produce the most talked-about book of his age. A somewhat sickly loner, he nonetheless touched something in the ... More

An Encyclopedia of Pacifism  

Aldous Huxley

British novelist and critic Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) was also known as a writer on history, travel, and many other subjects, as well as a sometime poet. He attended Oxford University where ... More

Excerpts from a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler to open the 1933 Congress of the National Socialist Party  

Adolf Hitler

Hitler was appointed to the Chancellorship in January 1933. One month later a young Dutch Communist, Marinus van der Lubbe (1909–1934), set fire to the Reichstag building; by his own ... More

Fighting for Perpetual Peace  

Mao Zedong

For most people, the greatest conflict of the second half of the twentieth century was one that emerged within and then divided peoples of the Western tradition: that is, the rival ... More

Force and Consent  


Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943. As leader of the Fascist Party, he governed the nation as Prime Minister, according to the constitution, until January of 1925, ... More

“Foundations and Doctrine of Fascism”  

Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile

Through a series of small demonstrations and gatherings in 1919, Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) created, at least in his own estimation, a completely new political ideology. He named this ... More

France at War  

Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) was an India-born British writer best known for his many volumes of short stories and of poetry, as well as his novel Kim (1901). He was awarded the Nobel Prize ... More

The God That Failed  

Arthur Koestler

Born in Budapest and educated in Austria, Arthur Koestler (1905–1983) was a member of the Communist Party from 1931 to 1938, when he resigned his membership. He wrote many novels, essays, ... More

Goodbye to All That  

Robert Graves

Robert Graves (1895–1985) was a British writer whose talents spanned a wide range of genres, from novels and poetry, to biography, history, mythology, and translation. He was born in 1895 ... More

The Great Illusion  

Norman Angell

Norman Angell (1872–1967), after spending several years in the United States working variously as cowboy, farm laborer, and reporter, became the Paris-based editor of the English Daily Mail ... More

The International Jew  

Henry Ford

Henry Ford (1863–1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company, which produced the world’s first affordable cars. While he was known as a pacifist in the First World War, in the second he ... More

Mein Kampf  

Adolf Hitler

As a result of the failure of his Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in November 1923, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) was sent to a minimum security prison at Landsberg. However, he was paroled, four ... More

Nuremburg Diary  

Gustave Gilbert

Gilbert (1911–1977) was an American military officer and prison psychologist during the Nuremburg trials. On October 20, 1945, the International Military Tribunal received indictments of ... More

“Perhaps” and Testament of Youth  

Vera Brittain

Born in 1893 into an upper-class family at a time when society expected neither intellectual nor professional achievement from such women, Vera Brittain obtained a scholarship to Somerville ... More

Speech from September 19, 1939  

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler’s promises of desire for lebensraum (“living space”) and a renewal of the former glory of the empire appealed to German nationalism. In 1938, Hitler set his sights on Poland, ... More

Storm of Steel  

Ernst Junger

German officer Ernst Junger (1895–1998) was wounded a total of fourteen times during World War I, including five times by bullets, one of which went through his chest. He survived, however, ... More

Three Guineas  

Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) was one of the foremost British modernist writers. A member of the influential set of writers, artists, and philosophers known as the Bloomsbury Group, her ... More

Treaty of Versailles  

David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson

The Treaty of Versailles concluded the First World War. Signed between the Axis powers and the victorious Allies, it was drafted primarily by the “Big Three,” Britain, France, and the ... More