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Civilization and Its Discontents  

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), who trained as a neurologist and general psychologist, pioneered psychoanalysis, the technique of encouraging free association. From his practice he developed the ... More

The Decline of the West  

Oswald Spengler

Oswald Spengler (1880–1936), may not have been the obvious candidate to produce the most talked-about book of his age. A somewhat sickly loner, he nonetheless touched something in the ... More

An Encyclopedia of Pacifism  

Aldous Huxley

British novelist and critic Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) was also known as a writer on history, travel, and many other subjects, as well as a sometime poet. He attended Oxford University where ... More

First Inaugural Address  

Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s four terms as President marked a turning point in American history, establishing the principle of the federal government’s responsibility for public welfare and ... More

Florida Road Map  


A vision of the “American Century” is powerfully conveyed by this 1930 road map produced by the Gulf Oil Company. The map spins an idealized vision of America just before the Great ... More

Force and Consent  


Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943. As leader of the Fascist Party, he governed the nation as Prime Minister, according to the constitution, until January of 1925, ... More

“Foundations and Doctrine of Fascism”  

Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile

Through a series of small demonstrations and gatherings in 1919, Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) created, at least in his own estimation, a completely new political ideology. He named this ... More

The International Jew  

Henry Ford

Henry Ford (1863–1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company, which produced the world’s first affordable cars. While he was known as a pacifist in the First World War, in the second he ... More

Mein Kampf  

Adolf Hitler

As a result of the failure of his Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in November 1923, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) was sent to a minimum security prison at Landsberg. However, he was paroled, four ... More


Halidé Edib Adivar

Halidé Edib Adivar (1884–1964) was a Turkish feminist and writer, best known for novels focusing on the status of Turkish women. Born in Constantinople (Istanbul), she was connected by ... More

The Myth of Sisyphus  

Albert Camus

Albert Camus (1913 – 1960) was a French author, journalist, and philosopher. He is one of the founders of absurdism, a philosophy that developed in Europe immediately after World War II and ... More

“Perhaps” and Testament of Youth  

Vera Brittain

Born in 1893 into an upper-class family at a time when society expected neither intellectual nor professional achievement from such women, Vera Brittain obtained a scholarship to Somerville ... More

“Shooting an Elephant”  

George Orwell

George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Blair (1903–1950), one of the most important writers in the English language during the twentieth century. Orwell is famous for two widely read novels, ... More

Speech from September 19, 1939  

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler’s promises of desire for lebensraum (“living space”) and a renewal of the former glory of the empire appealed to German nationalism. In 1938, Hitler set his sights on Poland, ... More

“The story of a Female Psychic”  

Fatima Mernissi

Fatima Mernissi is a Moroccan feminist and sociologist. After studying at the Sorbonne in Paris, she received her Ph.D. from Brandeis University before returning to Morocco. Mernissi’s work ... More

Three Guineas  

Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) was one of the foremost British modernist writers. A member of the influential set of writers, artists, and philosophers known as the Bloomsbury Group, her ... More

Undelivered address planned for Jefferson Day  

Franklin D. Roosevelt

During his first inaugural address as the president of the United States in March 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt had warned his fellow Americans, “The only thing we have to fear is fear ... More