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ANZAC troops at Gallipoli in August 1915  

C.E.W. Bean

In the aftermath of the Great War, the Allied nations compiled both regimental and general histories of the conflict. In these narratives, the experiences of the soldiers and their ... More

The Economic Consequences of the Peace  

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) was born in Cambridge, England, and attended King’s College, Cambridge, where he studied mathematics. While working in the British civil service he wrote his ... More

Economic Control and Totalitarianism  

Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich Hayek (1899–1992) was born in Vienna, when it was still the vibrant capital of the Austrian-Hungarian empire. After the war, he studied economics and law at the University of ... More

First Inaugural Address  

Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s four terms as President marked a turning point in American history, establishing the principle of the federal government’s responsibility for public welfare and ... More

“First Premises of the Materialist Method,” The German Ideology  

Karl Marx

Karl Marx (1818–1883), the German socialist philosopher, worked alongside Engels to shape the Communist Party, which Marx outlined in his seminal text The Communist Manifesto (1848). The ... More

“Foundations and Doctrine of Fascism”  

Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile

Through a series of small demonstrations and gatherings in 1919, Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) created, at least in his own estimation, a completely new political ideology. He named this ... More

France at War  

Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) was an India-born British writer best known for his many volumes of short stories and of poetry, as well as his novel Kim (1901). He was awarded the Nobel Prize ... More

The International Jew  

Henry Ford

Henry Ford (1863–1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company, which produced the world’s first affordable cars. While he was known as a pacifist in the First World War, in the second he ... More

Mein Kampf  

Adolf Hitler

As a result of the failure of his Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in November 1923, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) was sent to a minimum security prison at Landsberg. However, he was paroled, four ... More


Halidé Edib Adivar

Halidé Edib Adivar (1884–1964) was a Turkish feminist and writer, best known for novels focusing on the status of Turkish women. Born in Constantinople (Istanbul), she was connected by ... More

Nuremburg Diary  

Gustave Gilbert

Gilbert (1911–1977) was an American military officer and prison psychologist during the Nuremburg trials. On October 20, 1945, the International Military Tribunal received indictments of ... More

Presidential Address, Indian National Congress at gaya  

Chitta Ranjan Das

Chitta Ranjan Das was an Indian nationalist politician, and leader of the Swaraj (Independence) Party in Bengal, during British rule in India. Although educated in England, he returned to ... More

“Shooting an Elephant”  

George Orwell

George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Blair (1903–1950), one of the most important writers in the English language during the twentieth century. Orwell is famous for two widely read novels, ... More

Undelivered address planned for Jefferson Day  

Franklin D. Roosevelt

During his first inaugural address as the president of the United States in March 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt had warned his fellow Americans, “The only thing we have to fear is fear ... More