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“A Jewish Palestine”  

Henry Sacher

In this excerpt from an article in The Atlantic Monthly (July 1919), the British Zionist Harry Sacher (1882–1971) explains to an American audience why the issue of a Jewish homeland is such ... More

A Crisis of the Mind  

Paul Valéry

Paul Valery (1871–1945) was a French writer whose interests were so broad that he was known as a polymath (someone whose interests span many different areas). He produced plays, essays, ... More

First Inaugural Address  

Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s four terms as President marked a turning point in American history, establishing the principle of the federal government’s responsibility for public welfare and ... More

“First Premises of the Materialist Method,” The German Ideology  

Karl Marx

Karl Marx (1818–1883), the German socialist philosopher, worked alongside Engels to shape the Communist Party, which Marx outlined in his seminal text The Communist Manifesto (1848). The ... More


Halidé Edib Adivar

Halidé Edib Adivar (1884–1964) was a Turkish feminist and writer, best known for novels focusing on the status of Turkish women. Born in Constantinople (Istanbul), she was connected by ... More

Presidential Address, Indian National Congress at gaya  

Chitta Ranjan Das

Chitta Ranjan Das was an Indian nationalist politician, and leader of the Swaraj (Independence) Party in Bengal, during British rule in India. Although educated in England, he returned to ... More

“Shooting an Elephant”  

George Orwell

George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Blair (1903–1950), one of the most important writers in the English language during the twentieth century. Orwell is famous for two widely read novels, ... More