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The Arab Refugee Problem  

Abba Ebhan

Abba Eban (1915–2002) was an Israeli diplomat who served as Minister of Education and Culture (1960–1963), Deputy Prime Minister (1963–1966), and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1966–1974). ... More

Coverage of the Tiananmen Square Protests  

British Broadcasting Corporation

In May 1989, a protest movement gathered strength in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, as students convened and constructed a large statue called the Goddess of Democracy. By the beginning of ... More

Humanae Vitae  

Pope Paul VI

Pope Paul VI (1897–1978) took office at a time of reform in the Catholic Church. In the wake of Vatican II (1962–1965), he extended the reforming spirit of John XXIII. Nonetheless, in the ... More

“Message to the Pilgrims”  

Ruhollah Khomeini

Ruhollah Khomeini Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (1900–1989) was a leader-in-exile of the revolution that overthrew the Shah of Iran (1919–1980) in 1979, but his ... More

Pacem in Terris  

Pope John XXIII

Pope John XXIII (1881–1963) died from cancer shortly after issuing this papal encyclical (letter formally sent out to all bishops). In it he addressed not just Catholics, but all mankind, ... More

Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World  

Mikhail Gorbachev

Two years after becoming first secretary of the Soviet Politburo in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931) launched his two trademark economic and political programs, perestroika ... More

Resignation Speech  

Gamal Abdel Nasser

On June 9th, 1967, President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt resigned his office, after the failure of the Egyptian-led Six Day War against Israel. Nasser had held the presidency since 1956. He ... More

The Second Sex  

Simone de Beauvoir

Encouraged by the successful strategy and tactics of the civil rights and antiwar movements, a new assertiveness also marked the drive for women’s rights after the conclusion of the Second ... More

“The Path Which Led Me to Leninism”  

Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc)

On September 2, 1945, the day of Japan’s surrender to the United States, the leader of the communist resistance in Indochina, Ho Chi Minh, read a Vietnamese declaration of independence to ... More

“The story of a Female Psychic”  

Fatima Mernissi

Fatima Mernissi is a Moroccan feminist and sociologist. After studying at the Sorbonne in Paris, she received her Ph.D. from Brandeis University before returning to Morocco. Mernissi’s work ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations Drafting Committee

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the World War II. The ... More