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Humanae Vitae  

Pope Paul VI

Pope Paul VI (1897–1978) took office at a time of reform in the Catholic Church. In the wake of Vatican II (1962–1965), he extended the reforming spirit of John XXIII. Nonetheless, in the ... More

Iron Curtain speech  

Winston Churchill

Throughout the 1930s, Churchill had opposed the policy of “appeasement” advocated by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and his allies in the British Parliament. His rise to the highest ... More

“Iron Curtain” speech  

Winston Churchill

Churchill’s speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, delivered when Churchill was no longer Prime Minister, introduced the phrase “Iron Curtain” to describe the division of Europe ... More

“MANIFESTO”  

The London Gay Liberation Front

The formation of the Gay Liberation Front in London and the publication of the Front’s Manifesto in 1971 was a pivotal event that transformed the ways gays viewed themselves. The Gay ... More

Message  

Ayatollah Khomeni

Sayyed Ruhollah Mostafavi Mosavi Khomeini, or Ayatollah Khomeini (1902–1989), was the leader of the Iranian revolution of 1979. After the downfall of the ruling Shah (King), Khomeini, who ... More

NSC 68  

Paul H. Nitze

This Report from the National Security Council to President Harry S. Truman laid out the framework for the policy of “containment” that guided US actions throughout the Cold War. Its main ... More

On Post-War American Policy  

Nikolai Novikov

Just as the United States distrusted the Soviet Union, so the Soviet Union distrusted the United States, believing it to be inherently imperialist and bent on Soviet destruction. Intended ... More

Pacem in Terris  

Pope John XXIII

Pope John XXIII (1881–1963) died from cancer shortly after issuing this papal encyclical (letter formally sent out to all bishops). In it he addressed not just Catholics, but all mankind, ... More

“Rivers of Blood” speech  

Enoch Powell

Enoch Powell was a member of parliament in Britain’s Conservative Party in the 1960s. He gave his “Rivers of Blood” speech in the spring of 1968 at the general meeting of the West Midlands ... More

The Second Sex  

Simone de Beauvoir

Encouraged by the successful strategy and tactics of the civil rights and antiwar movements, a new assertiveness also marked the drive for women’s rights after the conclusion of the World ... More

The Second Sex  

Simone de Beauvoir

Encouraged by the successful strategy and tactics of the civil rights and antiwar movements, a new assertiveness also marked the drive for women’s rights after the conclusion of the Second ... More

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

United Nations General Assembly

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, was one of the most significant and lasting results of the Second World War. ... More

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