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Abd al-Rahman al-Saadi on the Scholars of Timbuktu  

Abd al-Rahman al-Saadi

Born in Timbuktu in 1596, Abd al-Rahman al-Saadi wrote, in Arabic, a chronicle entitled Tarikh al-Sudan (History of the Sudan). The document addresses the political, cultural, and religious ... More

“At the Feet of the Village Elders”  

Oginga Odinga

The attitudes of British colonial authorities towards their subjects are reflected in Oginga Odinga’s memories of his childhood in a Kenyan village. The British government took over Kenya ... More

The Battle of Blood River  

Sarel Cilliers

Between 1837 and 1845, more than five thousand Dutch Afrikaner settlers moved into the South African interior, followed by even larger numbers after 1845. Their timing was opportune, for ... More

“Black Consciousness and the Quest for a True Humanity”  

Steve Biko

Born in 1946 in South Africa, in the Eastern Cape, Steve Biko engaged in political activism at a very early age, which ultimately caused his permanent expulsion from public schooling. ... More

Black Homeland Consolidation Proposals for South Africa  

Anonymous

Abstract and Key Words In 1950 the government of South Africa passed apartheid legislation known as the Group Areas Act No. 41, which required South Africans ... More

“Criticisn of Imperialism,” Imperialism  

John A. Hobson

John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) grew up during an economic depression in England that ultimately shifted his intellectual interests from literature to economics. One of his major ... More

Description of Northern Africa  

‘Abd al-‘Azīz al-Bakrī

Al-Bakrī was born in Spain, and it appears that he never left that country. However, he collected information from people he met who had traveled to the Sahara and the Sudan, and he ... More

Documents Concerning the Slave Ship Sally, Rhode Island  

Anonymous

Rhode Islanders were the principal American slave traders during the eighteenth century, during which a total of approximately 1,000 slave-trading voyages set out from the colony to Africa. ... More

An Ethiopian View of the Battle of Adowa  

Anonymous

Evidence that imperial expansion in the nineteenth century was not an exclusive European privilege is provided by this painting of the Battle of Adowa in 1896. Under the command of the ... More

The Fetha Nagast, Ethiopia  

Anonymous

In the medieval period Ethiopia became a multiethnic, multilingual, and multireligious state in which the kings limited the church’s conversion efforts. Nevertheless, the kings continued to ... More

Five-Year Plan Poster, Ghana  

Anonymous

While many consider the Cold War to have been a showdown between free market capitalism and state-directed economics, the truth on the ground was often more complex. Here, the American ... More

Global Gender Gap Report  

World Economic Forum

The Global Gender Gap Report was introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006 to analyze disparities between genders in a worldwide context. It assesses national gender gaps in political, ... More

The Glorious Victories of Amda Seyon, King of Ethiopia  

Anonymous

Amda Seyon was a fourteenth century king of the Solomonid Dynasty, which ruled Ethiopia from 1270 until 1974. The name of the dynasty, Solomonid, derives from the Ethiopian belief that the ... More

Golden Bracelets from the “Lost City” of Mapungubwe, South Africa  

Anonymous

The archaeological site of Mapungubwe, first discovered and excavated in the 1930s, spans the borders of present-day South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. It was one of the most powerful ... More

The History of Shaka  

Jantshi ka Nongila

Shaka was born in 1787, the illegitimate son of Senzangakhona, chief of the Zulu. Treated as an unwelcome outcast by his father and his kin, he sought refuge among several neighboring ... More

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano  

Olaudah Equiano

This autobiography of a slave who would emerge as a leading voice in the abolitionist cause has been enormously significant for understanding Atlantic slavery. Equiano claimed to have been ... More

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano  

In 1789, Olaudah Equiano published his autobiography, titled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African, written by himself. The title is most ... More

“King Leopold’s Soliloquy”  

Mark Twain

Samuel Clemens (1835–1910), who took his pen name from a command shouted on riverboats, was the quintessential American writer: his major works The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The ... More

Late 15th Century Ptolemaic Map of the World Henricus Martellus  

Henricus Martellus

Abstract and Key Words German mapmaker Henricus Martellus created this copy of a Portuguese map to show the extent of Bartolomeu Dias’s explorations beyond ... More

Letter of Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I) of Kongo to the King of Portugal  

Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I)

A Portuguese sailor came into contact with the Kingdom of Kongo, which occupied a vast territory along the Congo River in central Africa, in 1483. When he returned in 1491, he was ... More

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