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“Criticisn of Imperialism,” Imperialism  

John A. Hobson

John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) grew up during an economic depression in England that ultimately shifted his intellectual interests from literature to economics. One of his major ... More

An Imam in Paris: Account of a stay in Paris by an Egyptian Cleric  

Rifa'a Al-Tahtawi

The Egyptian scholar Rifa’a al-Tahtawi (1801–1873) sought to harmonize Islamic and Christian cultures by pushing mutual understanding and helping Egypt modernize. Al-Tahtawi spent five ... More

Imperial Edict of the Rose Garden  

Ottoman government

With a change of Ottoman sultans in 1839, the government issued the Rose Garden Edict, the first of three reform edicts which are collectively known as the Tanzimat (reorganizations). With ... More

The Jewish State  

Theodor Herzl

A Jewish Austrian writer, Theodor Herzl (1860–1904) is the father of the ideology of Zionism, which sought to create a state of Israel (achieved in 1948) that would be a center of Jewish ... More

Writings of Bahá’u’lláh  


In 1844 a young merchant from Shiraz in Persia began to teach a new faith, and he was given the title of the Báb (“the Gate”). Preaching against the hypocrisy of Muslim religious leaders, ... More