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“A Jewish Palestine”  

Henry Sacher

In this excerpt from an article in The Atlantic Monthly (July 1919), the British Zionist Harry Sacher (1882–1971) explains to an American audience why the issue of a Jewish homeland is such ... More

ANZAC troops at Gallipoli in August 1915  

C.E.W. Bean

In the aftermath of the Great War, the Allied nations compiled both regimental and general histories of the conflict. In these narratives, the experiences of the soldiers and their ... More

Civilization and Its Discontents  

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), who trained as a neurologist and general psychologist, pioneered psychoanalysis, the technique of encouraging free association. From his practice he developed the ... More

Civilization and its Discontents  

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was born in the Austro-Hungarian empire and lived in Vienna nearly all his life. (He fled to London in 1938, when Nazi Germany invaded Austria.) As a young man, ... More

Collective Guilt  

Paul Tillich

Paul Tillich (1886–1965) was a German-American theologian and a Christian existentialist philosopher. Born and raised in Germany, Tillich attended several universities there before becoming ... More

A Crisis of the Mind  

Paul Valéry

Paul Valery (1871–1945) was a French writer whose interests were so broad that he was known as a polymath (someone whose interests span many different areas). He produced plays, essays, ... More

The Decline of the West  

Oswald Spengler

Oswald Spengler (1880–1936), may not have been the obvious candidate to produce the most talked-about book of his age. A somewhat sickly loner, he nonetheless touched something in the ... More

The Economic Consequences of the Peace  

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) was born in Cambridge, England, and attended King’s College, Cambridge, where he studied mathematics. While working in the British civil service he wrote his ... More

Economic Control and Totalitarianism  

Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich Hayek (1899–1992) was born in Vienna, when it was still the vibrant capital of the Austrian-Hungarian empire. After the war, he studied economics and law at the University of ... More

An Encyclopedia of Pacifism  

Aldous Huxley

British novelist and critic Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) was also known as a writer on history, travel, and many other subjects, as well as a sometime poet. He attended Oxford University where ... More

Excerpts from a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler to open the 1933 Congress of the National Socialist Party  

Adolf Hitler

Hitler was appointed to the Chancellorship in January 1933. One month later a young Dutch Communist, Marinus van der Lubbe (1909–1934), set fire to the Reichstag building; by his own ... More

Fighting for Perpetual Peace  

Mao Zedong

For most people, the greatest conflict of the second half of the twentieth century was one that emerged within and then divided peoples of the Western tradition: that is, the rival ... More

First Inaugural Address  

Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s four terms as President marked a turning point in American history, establishing the principle of the federal government’s responsibility for public welfare and ... More

“First Premises of the Materialist Method,” The German Ideology  

Karl Marx

Karl Marx (1818–1883), the German socialist philosopher, worked alongside Engels to shape the Communist Party, which Marx outlined in his seminal text The Communist Manifesto (1848). The ... More

Florida Road Map  


A vision of the “American Century” is powerfully conveyed by this 1930 road map produced by the Gulf Oil Company. The map spins an idealized vision of America just before the Great ... More

Force and Consent  


Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943. As leader of the Fascist Party, he governed the nation as Prime Minister, according to the constitution, until January of 1925, ... More

“Foundations and Doctrine of Fascism”  

Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile

Through a series of small demonstrations and gatherings in 1919, Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) created, at least in his own estimation, a completely new political ideology. He named this ... More

France at War  

Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) was an India-born British writer best known for his many volumes of short stories and of poetry, as well as his novel Kim (1901). He was awarded the Nobel Prize ... More

The God That Failed  

Arthur Koestler

Born in Budapest and educated in Austria, Arthur Koestler (1905–1983) was a member of the Communist Party from 1931 to 1938, when he resigned his membership. He wrote many novels, essays, ... More

Goodbye to All That  

Robert Graves

Robert Graves (1895–1985) was a British writer whose talents spanned a wide range of genres, from novels and poetry, to biography, history, mythology, and translation. He was born in 1895 ... More