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Address to a Meeting in New York  

Malcolm X

The Black Muslims (or the Nation of Islam) were founded by an orthodox Muslim immigrant to America, Wallace Fard Muhammad, in 1931, and made into a powerful movement by Elijah Muhammad. ... More

Burial Mound at L’Anse Amour, Labrador, Canada  


This mound marks the grave of an adolescent boy from the “Maritime Archaic” people of Labrador. Roughly 7,500 years ago, his body was wrapped in a shroud of bark or hide and placed face ... More

The Clash of Civilizations  

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Huntington (1927–2008) was an influential political scientist who taught for most of his career at Harvard University. He was the author of numerous books and articles on politics ... More

“Criticisn of Imperialism,” Imperialism  

John A. Hobson

John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) grew up during an economic depression in England that ultimately shifted his intellectual interests from literature to economics. One of his major ... More

Declaration of Independence  

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was born to a distinguished and wealthy family in Albemarle County, Virginia, in 1743. After attending the College of William and Mary and studying law, he served six years ... More

Failed Prophecies, Glorious Hopes  

Richard Rorty

Richard Rorty (1931–2007) was an American philosopher who taught at Stanford, Princeton, and the University of Virginia. Rorty became associated with a form of American philosophy known as ... More

Federalist NO. 10 (The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection)  

James Madison

James Madison (1751–1836) was one of Virginia’s leading patriots during the Revolutionary War, was elected fourth president of United States, and led the nation during the War of 1812 with ... More

First Inaugural Address  

Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Delano Roosevelt

In 1860, Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), the Republican party candidate from Illinois, won the presidential election without carrying a single southern state. Although he had worked his way up ... More

First Inaugural Address  

Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s four terms as President marked a turning point in American history, establishing the principle of the federal government’s responsibility for public welfare and ... More

Florida Road Map  


A vision of the “American Century” is powerfully conveyed by this 1930 road map produced by the Gulf Oil Company. The map spins an idealized vision of America just before the Great ... More

Global Gender Gap Report  

World Economic Forum

The Global Gender Gap Report was introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006 to analyze disparities between genders in a worldwide context. It assesses national gender gaps in political, ... More

“I Have a Dream”  

Martin Luther King Jr.

Under the accelerating pressure of the American civil rights movement—and with images of African Americans being attacked and beaten as they demanded equality beaming across television ... More

The Jesuit Relations, French North America  


The Jesuit Relations are the most important documents attesting to the encounter between Europeans and native North Americans in the seventeenth century. These annual reports ... More

The Jesuit Relations, French North America  

Anonymous French Missionaries

The Jesuit Relations are the most important set of documents attesting the encounter between Europeans and native North Americans in the 17th century. These annual reports of French ... More

Letters on the Cuban Missile Crisis between Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev  

Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 marked the climax, and the most dangerous point, of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. When US spy planes discovered the ... More

Notes On The State of Virginia  

Thomas Jefferson

In 1781, while recovering from a fall from his horse, Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) penned his Notes on the State of Virginia, a wide-ranging critical assessment of conditions in his home ... More

On Nuclear Defense  

Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev

The 1980s was the final decade of the Cold War. Whereas the period between 1942 and 1962 marked the most hostile stage and 1962 to 1979 was the era of détente, the final stage saw the ... More

On Nullification and the Force Bill  

John C. Calhoun

In the first half of the nineteenth century, the primary exponent of states’ rights and of the idea that ultimate sovereignty lay in the states and not with the federal government was John ... More

Our Country  

Josiah Strong

Josiah Strong (1847–1916) was an eminent Congregationalist minister, head of the influential American Evangelical Alliance, and a leading spokesman of a movement for social activism among ... More

“Peculiarities of a Prodigal Century”  

J.R. McNeill

J. R. McNeill is an environmental historian at Georgetown University. In Something New Under the Sun (2000), McNeill provides a broad and comprehensive history of environmental change in ... More